Translated from the original by Costas Balomenos
The relief of Bar – Kokhba adorns Knesset (Jewish Parliement)
For entire centuries the Jews were nurtured in the idea that they are the chosen one people of God, to whom God will send his divine Messiah, to redeem him from evil and death and so begin a new era for them, but also for all humanity.
And indeed, when God decided, he sent his Messiah in the person of Christ Jesus, which the Jews not only did not recognized and did not accepted, but they proceeded much more, exterminating him by death on the cross, a crime for which the Jewish authorities pioneered...
Therefore, since the Jews rejected Jesus Christ as Messiah, they were looking after him for the true Messiah for them, in which however they had now provided new characteristics. The true Messiah will no longer has spiritual mission, but cosmic. His main concern will be the defeat of the Roman conquerors, the liberation of the Holy Land of Israel and the eternal sovereignty of the Jewish nation on all peoples on earth. And in the era of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, they found him in the person of the Jew revolutionist
- Kokhba. Simon Bar
But let's take things in order.
After the fall and destruction of
Jerusalem and the Temple
in 70 AD
of the Jews,
ceased to be
population of .
in some parts of the country were remaining Jewish settlements in towns that
had surrendered without a fight to the Romans, in the cities of the Palestine and in some others which were on
the coasts. Because of oppression, which accepted
outside kingdom of Agrippa Palestine, in the period 115 and 117
on a large
in Libya, Cyrenaica under
in Egypt, Cyprus and
Features events of this expanded insurrection are the battles between Greeks and Jews, the revolutions against the Romans in the east and the horrific cruelties, committed by the rebels. Informations and elements which have emerged from inscriptions and books, mention that this revolt of the Jews has not been only in the Diaspora, but occurred and in the country of
uprising. In the Jewish
is known as
9:14). Came from the
name of the Mauritanian
of the Jews
the emperor Trajan
in Israel Judea to annihilate the revolution,
in blood. The Talmudic
Temple of Jerusalem
destruction of various cities and the execution of leaders Pappus
became the idol
in the of the Mount
4: 6). Temple
Trajan was succeeded Hadrian in the Roman throne, who was one of the largest philhellenes emperors, who when he came to power showed tendencies to restore peace in the eastern regions of the empire and of reconstruction of these areas on a broad scale. It was now clear that Hadrian was giving great importance to the national character of each region, the peculiar prejudices and the needs of these provinces.
From this trend, the country of
maximum extent. In
his attempts for
of the Jews,
rebuild Israel Jerusalem, that would
to them, and
of the . Temple
As a result of this, the Jews began to flock to
for the re-erection
Epiphanius «LIBER DE MENSURIS ET PONDERIBUS, 170»). Jerusalem
But after a few years, since Hadrian came to power, his thoughts changed and showed hostile intentions to the Jews. The determination of the variation of the Hadrian incentives is difficult and confusing, because the available sources (for the writing of this article) are conflicting. We will quote and we will leave the reader to draw his own conclusion:
"Hadrian by varying thoughts, abandoned the plan of reconstruction of
it he decided
building this as
in Jerusalem at
Jewish presence. Israel
It is difficult the determination of the Hadrian's incentives for the aforementioned alteration of his plans. Is possible, that was motivated in this alteration from the heavy impact that had among Jews his promise and the political fears he felt from the restoration of
to the Jews. His attitude towards Judaism
in the early
relative policies was
aimed to introduce into
and especially in the eastern
and lifestyle. This was expressed in a similar
way at the construction of buildings and monuments, in making laws against the
eastern habits and adding to the decision conviction of castration - was punished
with the death penalty - the prohibition of circumcision. Jerusalem
This was not directed specific against Judaism, since the prohibition also was applied to others in the east, which submitted their sons to circumcision. But, for no other people the circumcision had so much importance. Nor any other people insisted with so much meticulousness in the need to submit each male child to circumcision.
Hadrian, who before becoming Emperor was governor of Syria and he had been in contact with the Jews, was certainly connoisseur of the importance that had been for them these measures. But to his decision to recreate and reconstitute the life in the
, purposely was
country. It is therefore not surprising because
of Israel until
1974) Land of Israel
«Hadrian firstly showed favor to the Jews, later appeared hard to them at the instigation of the Roman priests. Forbade them the circumcision, the reading of Scripture and the observance of the Sabbath, in the ruins of deserted
In the ruins
of the temple of Solomon erected a temple in the Capitol Jupiter, has cut
currency which brought a pig's image, propped up copper pigs on the city gates
and banned on pain of death the entrance of Jews in this city.» (Encyclopedia Eleftheroudaki, Volume 2) new city
"The reason given by the action of Emperor Hadrian to ban the circumcision, or in accordance with another aspect, from its intention to rebuild Jerusalem and to change in a city national." (See, The historical and cultural situation in the appearance of Christianity, John D. Galanis, collective Volume History of Orthodoxy, the beginnings of Christianity).
"The causes are certainly not clear, but, from what we know, this uprising provoked Emperor Hadrian's decree to transform Jerusalem into a pagan city and the space of the temple in the
." (Encyclopedia Papyrus
Volume 18) temple of Zeus
Finally, whatever were the causes, it is a fact, which the Jews began to prepare against
by making precautionary several fortifications and by accumulating weapons. A matter of fact, Dion
of the Jews
constructing defective weapons to the Romans, that they
As long as Hadrian was in the Land of Israel and on the around area, they did
not make open insurrection, but when he left the area, the uprising broke out
and received large dimensions, "Because the
the world were
The uprising took national character and mentioned local heroes and various messiahs. But the one who stood out and brought the fight to the end was Simon Bar-Kokhba, whose the provenance remains unknown. His name means "son of the star," but his real name was Var - Kozeva, i.e. "son of falsehood". In his successes against the Romans contributed and the support that provided by the revered in the Jewish nation, the jurist Akiba.
This rabbi succeeded insurrection throughout Mesopotamia, preaching the coming of the Messiah in the person of Var - Kocheva, which he named "star of Jacob", who planned - according to Vachaam - to resurrect "the scepter of
". Thanks to this
support and his great bravery, Bar-Kokhba succeeded - and by benefiting from
the absence of a sufficient number of Roman legions - to occupy Jerusalem,
fifty fortresses and other towns and villages. Proclaimed himself as king and
minted his own currency. He defeated repeated the eparch of Palestine Tinos
Rufus and Publius Marsellios - who came against - the governor of Syria, who arrived
with the legions, which were stationed there and in help of whom they had sent
the legions which were stationed in Egypt and Arabia. The 22nd
The enthusiasm of the Jews for their victories against the Romans was great. It created the belief that he had now started the new messianic era, which they were waiting hundreds of years. The attitude of the Simon Bar-Kokhba towards Christians - according to the Christian philosopher and martyr Ioustinos - were hostile and were undergoing harsh persecution, if not denied Christ: « And after this, the books remained near the Egyptians until now and they exist everywhere in all the Jews, who read them, do not understand the words, but they consider us enemies and opponents, they kill and punish us alike with you, when they can, as you can persuaded. Because, at the recent Jewish war, Bar-Kokhba, the leader of the revolution of the Jews, only for Christians ordered to are subjected to terrible punishments, if they not refuse Jesus Christ and blasphemed». (1st Apology 31, 5-7)
For subjugation of the Jews, Hadrian sent Ioulios Severus who was distinguished in
, leader of powerful forces.
He, was followed different war tactic. He did not do battles from the close
quarters with the rebels, but was restricted to a gradual recovery of
fortresses and harassment of opponents. According
Cassius “Fifty fortresses
... and 985 settlements destroyed“ and
the other commanders
was located on the edge
of the ridge,
southwest of .
lasted for three and a half years - according to Jewish tradition - the Bethar
was occupied in 9th of the month "Ab", during the year 135 AD, in the
anniversary of the destruction of the First and Jerusalem .
The Romans suffered heavy losses. According to Dion Cassius, they slaughtered
fall of the city. They skinned Rabbi Akiba
his death ended
messianism. Second Temple
After reconstitution of
national hero and
1. History of the people of
Israel until 1880,
2. Encyclopedia Eleftheroudaki, Volume 2.
3. Encyclopedia Papyrus - Larousse - Britannica, Volume 18.
4. John D. Galani, "The historical and cultural situation at the occurrence of Christianity", Collective Volume "History of Orthodoxy, the beginnings of Christianity".
5. Ioustinos, Apology first, Patristic Publications “Gregory Palamas”.
Writer Christos Pal